Glossary

Look up terms and abbreviations concerning the signal distribution for Satcom or TV and data transmission over cable.

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1+1 Redundancy

In 1+1 Redundancy Schemes either a module or a complete path e.g. for optical signal transmission is built redundant. The main as well as the backup module/path is monitored in hot-standby. The switch over to the backup module/path can be done automatically based on different criteria’s e.g. RF-Sensing.

3G-SDI

3G Serial Digital Interface (SDI) is defined by SMPTE (The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) and consists of a single 2.970 Gbit/s serial link for uncompressed signals, standardized in SMPTE 424M. 3-Gbps (3G) enables higher resolution of picture quality required in applications as digital cinema or HDTV 1080p.

A

A/B Switch

Switch to provide switching from signal source A to signal source B or vice versa. The switching can be done manually or automatically based on RF-Sensing or TRAC or remote controlled via Dig-In or SNMP.

Accumulated Signal Power

Accumulated Signal Power or Aggregated Power or Sum Level is the integrated power within a defined bandwidth.

Active Splitter

Active DEV Splitters are capable to split an input up to 128 outputs without loss or additional gain.

AGC

Automatic Gain Control (AGC), automatic adjustment of gain to achieve a stable output signal level.

Amplitude Frequency Response

Amplitude Frequency Response is the indication of gain or loss characteristics over frequency in decibel (dB).

ASI

ASI is a serial video communications standard defined by the DVB consortium for use in transporting MPEG-2 encoded video streams. The standard is most commonly used to transports MPEG-2 streams. Data is transported at a rate of 270 Mb/s. A complete discussion of DVB-ASI specifications is provided in EN 50083-9: Cabled Distribution Systems for Television, Sound and Interactive Multimedia Signals, available from ETSI.

Auto Mode

In Auto Mode DEV devices e.g. redundancy switches can work fully autonomously without the need of a M&C-System.

Automatic Switch Back

In case of redundancy switching a device equipped with the Option “Automatic Switch Back” will switch back from backup to main port after the status of main recovers.

B

BER

Bit Error Rate or Bit Error Ratio (BER) is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a certain time interval.

Bias Tee

Bias Tee or LNB Powering provides power to operate a LNB.

Blocking Matrix

A blocking matrix is built with switches on both the inputs and the outputs. Each input signal can be switched to only one output port at a time.

Broadband

The term broadband refers to the wide bandwidth characteristics for signal transmission.

C

Cable modem

A modulator-demodulator at the subscriber premises intended for use in conveying data communications on a cable television system.

Carrier Detect

Carrier detect is the equivalent to RF Sensing but for video signals. It is used as a quality indicator to either just send an alarm to a M&C System or for instance to perform a redundancy switching fully autonomously.

CATV-Band

CATV (Community Antenna Television) is the historic name for the frequency band from 10 …1006 MHz (previously 47…862 MHz) incorporating the remaining analogue terrestrial TV, Cable TV and modulator IF frequencies.

CFP

Core Function Products (CFP) are streamlined to core functions, offering cost-savings while providing high quality in RF signal transmission.

Conditional Access

Conditional Access (CA) Conditional access system (CAS) standards are defined in the Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) standard for DVB-CA (conditional access system), DVB-CSA (the common scrambling algorithm) and DVB-CI (the Common Interface). These standards define a method by which one can scramble a digital-television stream, with access provided only to those with valid decryption smart-cards.

CWDM

Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) combines multiple wavelengths, up to 16, on a single fiber optic cable.

D

DAS

A distributed antenna system (DAS), is a network of spatially separated antenna nodes connected to a common transport medium typically coax or fiber-optic cable that provides wireless service within an area, building or structure. DAS networks are mainly employed in specific localized areas to provide additional signal quality and coverage.

dB

dB is a logarithmic unit used to describe a ratio, here usually of power.

dBm

dBm or decibel-milliwatt is an electrical power unit in decibels (dB), referenced to 1 milliwatt (mW).

DC Blocked

In- or outputs which are DC blocked prevent the flow of DC voltage while passing RF frequency.

Desktop Modules

The DEV Desktop Modules belong to the OPTRIBUTION® series and are stand-alone modules for optical transmission. Due to the size the Desktop Modules are perfectly suited for space-limited applications and offer significant cost-savings.

Diplexer

A diplexer is a passive device that implements frequency domain multiplexing. Two ports (e.g., L and H) are multiplexed onto a third port (e.g., S). The signals on ports L and H occupy disjoint frequency bands. Consequently, the signals on L and H can coexist on port S without interfering with each other.

Distribution Amplifiers

Distribution Amplifiers are capable to split an input up to 128 outputs without loss or additional gain, typically offering additional features like LNB powering, tilt adjustment etc.

Downstream

Downstream, describe the transmission of an RF signal from headend or hub site to the subscriber.

Dry Contacts

Relay contacts, either generally open or generally closed, connected hardwired to a M&C System providing the status of dedicated features or common device status.

DVB-C

Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB-C) is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital television over cable. This system transmits an MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 family digital audio/digital video stream, using a QAM modulation with channel coding.

DVB-S2

Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite – Second Generation (DVB-S2) is a digital television broadcast standard that has been designed as a successor for the popular DVB-S system. It was developed in 2003 by the DVB Project, an international industry consortium, and ratified by ETSI (EN 302307) in March 2005.

DVB-T2

Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB-T2 ) Second Generation Terrestrial is the extension of the television standard DVB-T, issued by the consortium DVB, devised for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. DVB-T2 has been standardized by ETSI.

DWDM

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) combines multiple wavelengths, up to 80, on a single fiber optic cable.

E

E2000-Connector

The E2000 HRL Connector is an optical connector 8° angled originally developed by a Swiss company Diamond using a push-pull mechanism.

End of Life

End of Life describes products that are no longer produced and marketed by the manufacturer and are therefore no longer available. Nevertheless, support for the product continues to be provided until the End of Service.

Ethernet E-O-E Converter

The Ethernet E-O-E Converter is a dual fiber optical Ethernet converter module for the transmission of the Ethernet connection via optical fibers.

F

FAT

Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) is an audit at DEV or at the customers premises to check and approve device or systems functionalities.

F-Connector

The recommended F type connector is referred to as “precision F type connector” with a center pin and crimped body. This type of connector has very good return loss up to 3 GHz. The basic F connector using the solid conductor of the coaxial cable as the center pin is inexpensive yet has a good 75 Ω impedance match up to 1 GHz.

FTTB

Fiber to the building (FTTB) is a type of fiber-optic cable installation where the fiber cable goes to a point on a shared property and provides the connection to single homes, offices or other spaces.

FTTH

Fiber to the Home (FTTH) is the installation and use of optical fiber directly to individual buildings such as single family units (SFUs), like residences, and multidwelling units (MDUs), like apartment buildings, and businesses to provide high-speed broadband access. FTTH dramatically increases connection speeds and reliability for broadband networks compared to existing copper infrastructures.

Full Fan-In

Full Fan-in matrix allows for multiple simultaneous paths and allows inputs to share outputs. (Input signals are combined into a shared output).

G

Gain

Gain is defined as the ratio of the output power to the input power in dB. If a device provides gain the input signal will be amplified (gained) and thereof the output signal amplitude is typically higher than the one of the incoming signal.

Group Delay Distortion

Group Delay Distortion is a measure of the time delay of a signal passing a device over a frequency range.

H

HD-SDI

HD Serial digital interface (SDI) is a standardized video interface defined by SMPTE (The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers). A related standard HD-SDI provides a single 1.485 Gbit/s serial link for uncompressed signals. It is standardized in SMPTE 292M used in applications as HDTV 720p or 1080i.

HFC

Hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) is a telecommunications industry term for a broadband network that combines optical fiber and coaxial cable.

HSPA+

HSPA+, also known as Evolved High-Speed Packet Access, is a technical 3G standard for wireless communications. HSPA+ provides data rates to the end user that are comparable to LTE networks.

I

Impedance Transformer

Impedance transformers are used to transform/convert one impedance over a wide bandwidth to another in order to connect devices with different impedances.

Insertion loss

Insertion Loss (dB) is defined as the drop in signal power. In case of insertion loss the input signal will be attenuated. Consequently the output signal amplitude is lower than the one of the incoming signal.

IP2

The Second Order Intercept Point (IP2) is a measure of linearity that quantifies the second-order distortion generated by nonlinear systems and devices.

IPTV

Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is a system through which television services are delivered using the Internet protocol suite over a packet-switched network such as a LAN or the Internet, instead of being delivered through traditional terrestrial, satellite signal, and cable television formats.

Isolation In/In

Isolation between two inputs.

Isolation Off

Ratio between Insertion Loss/Gain of Measurement 1 and Insertion Loss of Measurement 2.

J

Jitter

Jitter is the undesired deviation from true periodicity of an assumed periodic signal in electronics and telecommunications, often in relation to a reference clock source.

K

Ku-Band

Ku-Band is primarily used in satellite communications with the frequency range between 10,7 GHz and 17,5 GHz. The Ku-Band uplink being between 14 GHz and 17,5 GHz and the downlink between 10,7 GHz to 12,75 GHz.

L

L-Band

L-Band stands for the frequency range 950…2150 MHz.

Lightning Protection

Lightning Protection, at DEV built with gas capsules, can protect equipment being damaged due to a lightning stroke. A proper grounding of all outdoor equipment, buildings etc. is as well mandatory to enhance security against lightning.

LNB

A Low-Noise Block down converter (LNB) is the receiving device mounted on satellite dishes used for satellite TV reception, which collects the micro waves from the dish. It receives the microwave signal from the satellite collected by the dish, amplifies it, down converts the block of frequencies to a lower block of intermediate frequencies typically L-Band.

LNB Power

LNB Power is the voltage and current to be fed to a LNB to operate the LNB and potential Line Amplifiers.

LTE

Abbreviation for Long-Term Evolution – a standard for wireless communications at high data rates. The standard has been developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) in Release 8 and 9. Although LTE is usually marketed as a 4G standard, technically it still belongs to the 3G standard.

M

M&C System

A Monitoring & Control System is an almost software-based system providing monitoring and control ability of vendor independent equipment e.g. in head end stations.

Managed L-Band Distribution

Managed L-Band Distribution stands for a chassis which contains multiple L-Band distribution amplifiers of various fixed splitting ratios or switching scenarios e.g. matrix switch or RF matrix. As a standard all distribution amplifiers use RF-Sensing technology to check the signal performance, provide LNB power with current monitoring to alarm in case of a LNB failure and optionally provide a manual gain and tilt control function. In- and output connectors can be selected in 50 Ohm SMA (f) or 75 Ohm high precision F (f).

Matrix Switch

Matrix Switches are IRD controlled switches providing 4 inputs and up to 64 outputs. Each IRD connected to an output can choose the appropriate input. See also IRD Controlled Switch.

MGC

MGC (Manual Gain Control) is used to manually adjust the gain.

Monitoring Port

A Monitoring Port is an additional RF port providing the same or less signal level as e.g. at the appropriated in- or output.

N

N+1 Redundancy

N+1 redundancy ensures system availability in the event of a failure in one of the main paths. N main paths have at least one backup path (+1).

Next Generation Network

Next-generation network (NGN) is a body of key architectural changes in telecommunication core and access networks. The general idea behind the NGN is that one network transports all information and services (voice, data, and all sorts of media such as video) by encapsulating these into packets, similar to those used on the Internet. NGNs are commonly built around the Internet Protocol, and therefore the term all IP is also sometimes used to describe the transformation of formerly telephone-centric networks toward NGN. The concept of future Internet refers instead to how the Internet itself might evolve.

Noise Figure

Noise figure (NF) is a measure of degradation of the signal to noise ratio (S/N), caused by components in a radio frequency signal chain. It is a number by which the performance of a radio receiver or system can be specified. The noise figure is simply the noise factor expressed in decibels (dB).

Non-Blocking Matrix

A non-blocking cross-point matrix is designed to allow one input or output to be connected to multiple inputs or outputs simultaneously.

O

OMI

OMI stands for Optical Modulation Index – It is a variable in the determination of the carrier power and thus the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR). This is a major factor in the performance of optical communication systems. OMI indicates how much the modulation signal affects light output and is measured in percent.

Optical Budget

The optical power budget in a fiber-optic communication link is the maximum acceptable optical loss between Tx- and Rx-Module.

Optical Receiver

Optical Receivers are modules to receive an optical signal and convert it into an electrical one.

Optical Transmitter

Optical Transmitters are modules to convert an electrical signal to optical and transmit it via an optical fiber.

P

Passive Combiner

Passive Combiners are used to link together a number of signals without the use of active components.

Patch Panel

The term Patch Panel is used here for an assembly coaxial adapters to connect RF cables to provide the possibility of easy recabling of parts of a system.

Power Consumption

Power Consumption is the maximum power consumption of a device.

Power Supply Redundancy

Power supply redundancy is the duplication or even triplication of the power supply as a critical component or function of the system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the case of a backup or fail-safe. In case of no failure load sharing between the installed power supplies ensures an increased MTBF.

Q

QAM

Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) can be both an analog or a digital modulation scheme. It conveys two analog message signals, or two digital bit streams, by changing (modulating) the amplitudes of two carrier waves, using the amplitude-shift keying (ASK) digital modulation scheme or amplitude modulation (AM) analog modulation scheme.

R

Redundant Amplifier

The Redundant Amplifiers ensure continuous operation in RF transmission applications to avoid signal loss if one amplifier fails. It is the consequent approach for “no single point of failure” having all active RF or digital components redundant on a module basis.

Remote Mode

Remote Mode is an operation mode which is controlled remotely i.e. from another place possibly far away from the system which is operated. This can be done via a remote protocol e.g. SNMP, Leitch or Web browser.

Return Path Network

See Back Channel Network.

RF over Fiber

RF over Fiber refers to technology that modulates light with a radio frequency signal for transmission over an optical fiber. All satellite ground stations and teleports must have an effective transmission method for RF signals linking antennas, signal management equipment and wide-ranging equipment centers. Beyond traditional copper or coax, current “state-of-the-art” installations are best served by fiber-optic links. RFoF incorporates several advantages over coax: limited losses, preserved signal quality, and muted crosstalk. High-capacity fiber connectivity secures an enduring platform in the face of today’s ever-changing technology environment.

RF Sensing

RF Sensing measures the accumulated RF power over the entire bandwidth. This value is a quality indication to either just send an alarm to a M&C System or to perform a redundancy switching fully autonomously.

RF Switch

Switch intended to switch RF signals transported on coaxial cables with minimum insertion loss.

S

SC/APC

The SC/APC Connector is an optical connector 8° angled originally developed by a NTT using a push-pull mechanism.

Sensing Switch

A Sensing Switch is a DPST switch using the RF Sensing functionality for automatic switchover in case of signal loss.

SMA-Connector

SMA (Sub Miniature version A) connectors are semi-precision coaxial RF connectors miniature connector interface for coaxial cable with a screw type coupling mechanism. The connector has a 50 Ω impedance. It is designed for use from DC to 18 GHz.

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a remote protocol used for managing devices in M&C Systems.

Summary Alarm

Summary alarm indicates if any failure in a device occurs.

T

Threshold Repeatability

Threshold Repeatability is a measure for the preciseness of repeated measurement results that can be achieved under unchanged conditions.

TRAC

The TRAC (Trap Receiver Action Controller) option is intended to provide means for additional automatic remote switching capabilities of a device. With this functionality, the device is able to perform switching actions based on SNMP traps received from any external equipment without additional M&C software. In addition, the IP Monitoring functionality continuously checks the availability of external equipment used in any TRAC configuration. The device is able to command itself and other equipment via SNMP.

TripleC Protection

TripleC Protection is DEVs free service package for 37 months and stands for Competent and Complete Care.

U

Upstream

Upstream, describe the transmission of an RF signal from the subscriber to the headend or hub site.

V

Variable Slope (or Tilt)

The Variable Slope (or Tilt) feature permits the compensation of frequency dependent losses, e.g. of coaxial cables in customer systems.

VoD

Video On Demand (VOD) is a system that allows users to select and watch/listen to video or audio content when they choose to, rather than having to watch at a specific broadcast time.

VPN

Virtual Private Network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, such as the Internet. It enables a computer or network-enabled device to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if it were directly connected to the private network, while benefiting from the functionality.

W

Wavelength

Wavelength is the distance between identical points in the adjacent cycles of a waveform signal propagated in space or along a wire. Can be calculated as Lambda λ = v / ƒ, were v is velocity and f is frequency.

Wi-Fi

The term Wi-Fi is widely used to describe a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) that allows mobile devices to communicate on unlicensed frequency spectrum.

X

X-Band

For military communications satellites, the ITU has assigned the X band uplink frequency band as from 7.9 to 8.4 GHz. The ITU-assigned downlink frequency band is from 7.25 to 7.75 GHz.